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Saturday, 4 January 2014

Paper 9: Educational Administration


Paper 9: Educational Administration
Q.8. Briefly outline the responsibilities of a full time Principal.
Ans:
When the Principal of a high school is the official leader, he can establish himself as a real educational leader only through the use of democratic process and on the basis of the quality of his contributions. He should establish his ability to act as a consultant to the teachers, one who can aid them to solve their problems. He should try to develop the ability of the staff lo work and think together. He should attempt to make changes in the educational programme only through group evaluation and group planning. In light of this let us now discuss the important duties of the Principal.

1. Principal's Supervisory Duties

The officials of a high school may be classified as "Extra-high-school and Intra-high-school officers." The extra-high-school officials are those associated with the central office and the intra-high-school officers are assistants to the Principal.
Their work is within the high school. The extra-high-school officials arc the special supervisors, directors of cur­riculum or instruction etc. The intra-high-school officers include the first assistant, department heads, librarian, counsellors, teachers in charge of games, sports, N.C.C., N.S.S., Red cross and other assistants. The Principal, being the educational leader is to supervise the activities of both intra and extra-high-school officers.

2. Supervision of instruction

To improve the quality of teaching and learning in the teacher -student system the Principal should pay regular visits to the different classes in which the teachers are engaged. He should work as an expert source of help through free discussion with them. Since teaching has independent parts like planning, actualizing the plans, describing what was actualized, analyzing what happened and generalizing in the terms of planning, the Principal should work together with the teachers to improve the "learning environment."
This will be possible through mutual esteem and trust, which again depends upon contact and interaction. He should not interpret his role as 'telling, rather he should accept coopera­tion, help and assistance as a way of life.

3. Supervision of Curriculum Development and Improvement

For the improvement of learning according to the changing needs of the society, constant revision and improvement of the curriculum is essen­tial. Since the Principal is the educational leader, he is responsible for developing the curriculum design, and coordination of the curriculum improvement, stimulating innovation, developing demonstrations of new procedures and practices, keeping information about new curriculum development and conducting research that is appropriate to school sys­tem.
He should educational programme. He should also evaluate the effectiveness of the educational programme. He should organize a cur­riculum development team with the staff members and should consult pupils and parents by conducting investigations of pupils’ progress and by promoting follow-up studies of dropouts.

4. Supervision of curricula rand Co-curricular Activities

The Principal should set-up separate committees with a chair­man to look to their progress. The curricular activities like instructional programme guidance services, examinations and evaluation, audio-visual educational programmes etc., and co-curricular activities like games and sports, excursions, hobbies, debating and literary society, cultural and social programmes, library and reading room, Red Cross and First Aid, N.C.C. and N.S.S. etc., are to be supervised by the Principal with the help of these committees. Distribution of activities should also be made by the Principal. Thus, he can help the growth and development of the whole child, mental, moral and physical activities.

5. Supervision of School Hostel

Though the school hostel remains in charge of a superintendent, who happens to be a teacher, it is also the duty of the Principal to supervise carefully the hostel. He should try to create a homely atmosphere in the hostel. He should pay occasional visits to the hostel to see its management.
Thus, the Principal is responsible for the all round progress and development of the school programme. Through democratic supervision, he can become vigilant and manage the school affairs efficiently.

6. Administrative Responsibilities of the Principal

The administrative responsibilities of the Principal can be clas­sified under two heads - external and internal. The external responsibilities connect the Principal with some external authorities like the govern­ment, the state department of education, the High School Education Board and the governing body of the school. The internal responsibilities connect him with the organization of internal responsibilities of the school, the school office and administering the school budget and the school plant.

7. His relations with the External Authorities

Education has now become the responsibility of the state. Therefore, the government decides the educational policies, prepares educational budgets, provides grant-in-aid to the schools and decides the service conditions of the teachers. The Principal should be aware of these regulations and other administrative developments at the level of the government.

8. His relations with the State Department of Education

The state department of education includes the secretariat of Education and the Directorate. Rules and regulations regarding "admission, withdrawal, attendance, school timings, promotion rules, punishment, time tables, size of the class" etc., are fixed by the department from time to time. So the Principal cannot work without his relation with the State Department of Education or with the Board of Education.

9. Board of Education

The school certificate examination is conducted by the Secondary Board of Education, ft prescribes and writes text-books for the schools. Prepares curriculums, fixes the rules and regulations for the examinations. The Principal cannot run the administrative machinery of the school without being fully conversant with the details of the work of the Secondary Board of Education. Therefore, he should keep contact with the Board.

10. The relationship with the Managing Committee

Every non-government school has a managing committee with a president, a secretary and a few members. This body has direct connection with the state department of education and also with the Secondary Board of Education. It is a very powerful body, which can appoint and dismiss teachers. Of course this power of the management has been curtailed these days. For the smooth running of the school administration, a Principal working in a non-government school should have close contact with the managing committee.

Q.7. “Principal as a leader”. Discuss with suitable examples.
Ans:
In the planning and execution of school programme, the head of the institution, teachers, students and their parents have all to join hands to attain common goals and purposes. The Principal may be described as the Solar Orb, round whom all the teacher planets revolve.
A better analogy is given by W.M. Ryburn, when he compares the Principal to the Captain of a ship, who like Captain in the ship, holds the key position in the school. Ryburn wants a Principal to be a man of faith. It is therefore, essential that he is not only a man of high character, but a man of faith, "Faith in vocation, faith in his pupils faith in human nature and faith in his staff'.
Also Ryburn lays emphasis on the inspiring qualities of the Principal of the schools. "He must also be able to inspire the staff in their day-to-day work, inspire pupils to use all opportunities provided, drawing out the best that is in them inspire the society."
In the worlds of the Central Advisory Board of Education, "No scheme of educational reconstruction will produce the desired result, unless it is administered with vision and efficiency. The person who plans with vision and executes with responsibility is virtually the Principal". In fact, school is the lengthened shadow of Principal.
The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) opines on Principal, "On him the proper working of school ultimately depends. The reputation of the school and the position that it holds in the society depends in a large measure on the influence that he exercises over his colleagues his pupils and general public.
True, on his ability and skill, as a sound and effective educational leader depends the success of a school system. A Role of Principal and Teachers !Principal is the leader and the centre of the whole organization of the school. P.C. Wren beautifully explains the role of the Principal in the following words :
"What the mainspring is to the watch, the fly-wheel to the machine, or the engine to steamship, the Principal is to the school. The character of the school reflects and proclaims the professional character of the Principal. He is the seal and the school is the wax."
"As the Principal, so is the school". There is no denying the fact that everything in the school, the staff, the curriculum, the method of instruction the discipline, the co-curriculum, activities, the daily schedule and the general atmosphere and the tone of the school is fashioned in the mould of the Principal. It may be recalled that some schools in England are still named after their reputed Principal, i.e. Harrow School, Rugby importance in the school programme. The whole programme of school either grows or remains sterile according to equipment, training and competence of the Principal. Everything in the school, Buildings, Furniture, Library, Laboratory, Methods & Techniques of Teaching, Co-curricular activities and human relationships bear the impact of the personality of the head and reflect his leadership.
The role of the Principal as a man is perhaps the most important. He is both human and human. He is also both trustful trustworthy. He should always carry a young heart.

Q.10. Write short note:
Ans: Provisions for youth needs in the curriculum.
                                               

                                                               



Q.2. Academic freedom is vital to a free society. Explain
 
                                                      








Q.4. What should our schools accomplish? Enumerate.

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